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Waka Tanka: A Response to Bruno Faidutti


I wrote a post last month about appropriation and amalgamation of indigenous cultures to use as board game themes. A short while after, I saw a new game, being brought to the United States by Cool Mini or Not, designed by Bruno Faidutti, Waka Tanka. This is a small bluffing card game with some sort of appropriated indigenous culture as a theme on top of it. Without knowing the context of the development process and the decisions made by the company or by the designer, at first glance it seemed like a hugely problematic board game theme. I was sent an article via Twitter (http://faidutti.com/blog/?p=4694) where Faidutti addresses these concerns and talks about why the theme was chosen. As a disclaimer, the post was translated from French and some of the words may have lost some of the original meaning of the post.

I think Bruno Faidutti is a great board game designer. He’s designed such games as the trick-taking The Dwarf King, the classic role selection Citadels, the simultaneous action selection Mission Red Planet, and much much more. I like many of his games and I think he is one of the best small card game designers. I looked forward to read his blog post about Waka Tanka, hoping to gain more insight into his decisions or the company’s decisions. Spoilers: I found nothing of the sort. All I found was frustration and anger. As I sat here and try to write a response to the article, I was little lost at where to begin.

“When I was thinking of fun themes for a bluffing game, I came upon the idea of animal sacrifice, and of priests slaughtering the wrong animal hoping that men and may be even gods, would not notice. I hesitated between ancient Greek temples and American Indian shamans. I choose the latter because cougars, eagles and bison are sexier than cows, hens and pigs, and would make for much nicer graphics.”

Uhhh… This is how to blog post starts out. The words hit me hard and left me speechless for a time. I do not know what I was expecting going into this post and the designer started off in my opinion on a slippery slope, talking about animal sacrifice without knowing the full extent of different beliefs and values of cultures he elected to use. He used those assumptions to formulate the basis of his theme and further, chose the one he thought would look better and sell more to his audience. Bruno Faidutti repeatedly uses the words exotic and exoticism in his English writing and I am not sure if this is lost in translation. Exotic has a very negative connotation when talking about non-European cultures and the fact that he picked this theme because the exotic nature of Indigenous culture would make for better art and a more compelling experience irks me.

I understand that a theme outside of the western-European realm makes for interesting and compelling games. Who wants to play another game about trading goods in Europe or Europe’s industrial revolution or about farming in France. There is a market for diversity and representation in games and the potential for many other to join the hobby because of better representation in games. However, there is a right way and a wrong way to diversify the hobby. In the book and publishing world, the controversy surrounding When We Was Fierce criticized an author, publishing company, and critics, for putting out a book, misrepresenting the black community by featuring a stereotypical and poorly written black main characters. Ultimately, the publisher delayed publishing the novel with the call from the book community for more books written from #ownvoices. There is no such thing in the board game world (#owndesigns maybe?). One person can call out problematic content and the game will still be published. We do not have a strong community of people who are vocal about the need for social justice, equity, and inclusion in board gaming, that we need more than diversity. In my opinion, the publisher should pull this game before it is released in the United States.

“My publisher made a very fast enquiry and found out that Plains indians didn’t sacrifice animals, but only summoned their spirits – this makes the game’s theme a bit less fun…”

It looks like here the publisher actually did a little research, but the extent looks like a Google search and reading a Wikipedia article on the Indigenous Peoples of the Plains. There is no further mention of research in the article OR talking to anyone who identifies with a tribe. In addition, the lack of research tells me that neither the designer nor the publisher thought about the myriad of different Indigenous tribes in the Americas and how their cultural customs differ. And the kicker about the theme being less fun without animal sacrifice. This cheapens actual, real cultural rituals and beliefs, making them something for us (non-indigenous peoples) to consume and enjoy. Their culture is not something for us to use for our entertainment.

“Some might be surprised to see, a few months later, a game of mine making an apparently careless use of stereotypes about Native Americans, even choosing an exotic sounding name…”

Bruno Faidutti wrote a blog post called Postcolonial Catan which talks a lot about different themes in games when it comes to themes about colonialism, orientalism (I cringe), and other similar topics. While Faidutti makes some very positive points about the use of such themes, he says many things that are also problematic. In this quote, he is referring back to his article because this release is seemingly contradictory to many of his points. Upon reading the original article (http://faidutti.com/blog/?p=3780), I am actually not surprised at his decisions in Waka Tanka. I get the sense Faidutti is trying to straddle the line between cultural sensitivity and cultural celebration, and unknowingly and unfortunately ending up in the ‘this is not about a specific culture’ place. When stuck in that place, it is impossible to fully celebrate cultures in terms of theme and lands on the appropriation/misrepresentation side of the line.


“Lakota have animal spirits but no totem poles – but anyway, this is not a game about Lakotas, about animal spirits or about totem poles – it’s a light bluffing game using the very European image of the Indian village elaborated in comics from the sixties and seventies…”

As I continued reading I felt as if Bruno Faidutti was acknowledging problematic decisions he was making but somehow he used that acknowledgment and twisted them to justify his decisions such as the quote above. Again, he goes back to the ‘this is not about a specific culture’ place when something does not align with his original theme and in this instance, despite the differences between tribal cultures, Faidutti decided to mash in whatever he wanted in order to replicate the images from comics of the sixties and seventies. Microaggressions and stereotypes do not have to be blatantly negative in order to be hurtful. For example, telling a person of color when they speak, they sound very articulate, insinuates that people of color in general are not articulate. On it’s face, it sounds like a compliment, but underneath there is an assumption and stereotype backed by power and privilege. The same works here for the European ‘positive’ stereotypes of ‘American Indians.’

“If I were to design this game today, I would probably think a bit more on the theme, but I’m not sure I would change it.”

I hoped he would have a different perspective looking back on his design process and the selection of the theme. After reading that he would not change the the of Waka Tanka, I cannot say with any confidence Faidutti learned from this experience. He got his fair share of criticism in the comment section on his blog and responded to almost every one. He engaged in intellectual conversations with his fans and people in the board gaming community. I wonder what more he would think about to simply come to the same decision as before.

This is not just on Bruno Faidutti. The publishing company  – in the United States, Cool Mini or Not – needs to take responsibility for rejecting theme ideas or accepting games to be published on the contingency of a theme reworking / better work to keep a diverse theme. This is really similar to the publishing company that put out When We Was Fierce. If this game remained in Europe, the raical context is different as Faidutti points out. But now the game is set to be released in the United States and the racial climate and context is completely different! If Europe can separate themselves from European colonialism, which I still cannot understand how, the United States certainly cannot. Just look at current events and read up on #NoDAPL and see modern day colonialism.

“The context of Waka Tanka is not native Americans culture, of which I know almost nothing…”

“There’s definitely much racism in Europe, but there’s certainly no racial prejudice against American Indians. On the contrary, the image we have of them is a caricature, but unequivocally a very positive one. Of course, we can explain this with the usual joke, saying it’s because there are no native Americans in Europe, but I think there’s more to it. Most Europeans don’t really know there are still Native American people and living native American cultures – for us, American Indians are historical figures, not contemporary ones, and therefore cannot be really seen as “foreigners”.”

Bruno Faidutti admits to not know anything about Indigenous cultures in the Americas and states again and again this game is not about their cultures, it’s just a depiction using stereotypes and caricatures that are popular in Europe. To him, this is a justification for using Indigenous culture like someone would use ancient Rome. The idea that ‘American Indians’ are historical figures for Europe does not discount the fact that Indigenous People are real and alive today and suffering from the everlasting impact of European colonialism! I literally had to get up and walk away from my computer after reading that sentence. Faidutti does so much damage in one sentence – discounting an entire peoples made up of many different tribes and cultures, justifying his use of the ‘American Indian’ stereotypes, erasing the impact of European colonialism in the present day, and trying to spin his uses of theme as positive for Indigenous Peoples. This is particularly hard to swallow for me, coming from a White person from a country who helped colonize the Americas.

I will give Bruno Faidutti a little credit – he is willing to have discussions about the use of culture as theme in board games and I believe he finds those dialogues to be very important. Albeit, in my opinion, his justifications are problematic and flawed, I have not seen any other designers respond to criticisms of appropriation and misrepresentation. However, I will not give him credit for trying to diversify the hobby. Yes, White designers cannot hide behind the excuse of ‘fear of being called out’ to justify always designing games representing White straight cisgender able men. They must do better when designing games to diversify the hobby. Particularly when it comes to using non-Western cultures as a theme. They must do better when responding to criticism about diversity and inclusion and try to avoid defensiveness. I know it is hard to receive criticism. But we must listen to and value other people’s experiences. There is a right way to do inclusion and diversity in board games and I hope to see a good example of that in the near future.


19 thoughts on “Waka Tanka: A Response to Bruno Faidutti

  1. Very nice read! Definitely heavier than most board game articles! Just as a ‘2 cents’ comment I have played Waka Tanka and nothing about the game struck me as negative or harmful. It seemed very playful, like a game would if someone took a broad cultural topic and made a light, quick, colorful game out of it. Which, is exactly what it sounds like he did. lol I also say this as an American who has enough Cherokee in him to claim it on legal documents. I have worked off and on on a game about Gypsy caravans because I love the colorful wagons, and this makes me wonder if European cultures would be offended by it, even though to me it would be an innocent attempt to theme a game about traveling wagons. I am, though, admittedly very difficult to offend. 🙂 Anyway, very well written and informative!

    Liked by 1 person

    Posted by Matt S. | September 10, 2016, 5:21 PM
    • Thank you for reading and responding. I have no doubt Faidutti’s intentions and implementations in the game were just that and not malicious. In fact, I think this would be a game I would very much enjoy! For me it was less about the game and more about what happened in the process of designing and publishing. Where it hit wrong for me is the way games themes get published without any consultation or thought to the potential impact of using someone else’s culture for entertainment and profit (I also understand in board games, profit for designers is not always existent). The final straw for me was Faidutti’s response in defending his choices and I decided to respond from my own perspective.

      I think this game could have been published with a positive reception for me with the same theme if the designer and publisher went about it differently. I think there are ways we can legitimately use diverse themes even from outside of our experiences. It may take more work, collaboration, and coalition building, but I see it as possible.

      Thank you again for sharing some of your experience! I am always happy and willing to dialogue about diversity & inclusion in board gaming.

      Liked by 1 person

      Posted by Brendon | September 11, 2016, 8:48 AM
  2. Wow. It’s important that the designer was wiling to engage in this type of dialogue, but it’s too bad he didn’t see anything wrong with what he did. I’m not opposed to art that includes aspects of cultures different from the artist’s background, as long as the artist is careful and respectful. I’m still processing the excerpts of Faidutti’s article included in your post (the “positive caricature” idea floors me). I’m shocked by it, but I’m not sure why. He’s certainly not the only person who feels this way.

    Liked by 1 person

    Posted by A.M.B. | September 11, 2016, 12:51 PM
    • Thank you for you comments and thoughts. I always welcome someone who is willing to engage in productive ways, even if we don’t end up agreeing at the end. Bruno Faidutti showed a lot of class by showing up to the conversation. The line between appropriation and celebration is so wishy washy, and interpreted differently by different people. I am with you though – it floors me that many folks feel as he does about the caricatures of marginalized peoples. I am not sure how to move the conversation forward.


      Posted by Brendon | September 12, 2016, 10:46 AM
  3. Omg. Brendon, his responses were utterly repulsive. He stunningly tone deaf.
    His comment about Indigenous people not being real or contemporary people disgusted me. His justifications just made everything worse!
    Thanks for speaking on this. Have you tweeted extensively about this issue to bring it more attention? I feel like more people should be discussing it, though I’m not in the board gaming community to know that.


    Posted by Read Diverse Books | September 11, 2016, 6:42 PM
    • Right?! I had to take a long walk after reading the article for the first time. And it took me a long time to formulate a response.

      This post has been my most popular post. I had more viewers this weekend than I have had in the past couple of months combined. Many folks in the board game world have picked it up, read it, and shared it. Bruno Faidutti even posted a quick response (http://faidutti.com/blog/?p=6227), which I promptly commented on and haven’r heard back from him. I have helped spark a conversation that already existed from a few folks and I am happy I was able to support those people. I am not sure what is next… but I plan to continue to call out stuff like this.


      Posted by Brendon | September 12, 2016, 10:50 AM
  4. I think you seriously exaggerate your criticism, this game is not meant to be educational or to convey any worldview, you seem to think every game, every cultural object in fact, is wearing with itself a whole set of worldviews regardless of the creator’s intentions… leading you to make comments that boil down to the notion that any game made with a theme should try to be educational about the reality of that theme or else it has to be considered as a cultural aggression, this is over-interpretation.

    I understand these kind of identity politics has grown enormously (and sometimes to ridiculous proportions) in the US, but a lot of it is just that, exaggeration, and the case you make against this harmless game is one example of that.

    I understand there can be “unconscious” clichés in some creations that have to be exposes, but this is not even the case here, as here the intention was just to play around with a cliché, anyone who would want an informed opinion on native american culture would do so by other means than playing this game.


    Posted by OL | September 12, 2016, 11:29 AM
    • I first want to thank you for reading my post and replying. Whether we end up agreeing or disagreeing I am always thankful for your time and willingness to have a dialogue.

      I understand the intention of the designer and I do not think every game needs to be educational about identity, culture, etc. However, for me this is less about the game and it’s mechanics, which I am sure is a fun bluffing game. This is about the use of theme, the roots that allow the use of such a theme in this way, and how Bruno Faidutti went about using it and responded to the criticism. There is a difference between a theme trying to be educational and a theme being respectful to the cultural it is borrowing from. Themes do not always need to be educational. Themes should be respectful and accurately representative.

      I would caution you using the word harmless and exaggerating. To you, this theme and the way the designer went about it may have been harmless. To other people, this has caused and does cause harm. And no matter what our view is of this game, we should recognize that harm has been done to a community. To say it is harmless invalidates and erases those experiences.

      I don’t think people are picking up Waka Tanka to learn about Indigenous culture. I have no such illusion. What caricatures, stereotypes, and cliches do is perpetuate, sometimes subconsciously, false representation of an entire community of people. I think the same theme could have been used simply with some extra work. Diverse themes in our hobby is a good thing, but we have a responsibility too.

      My aim is not to convince you. Being stuck in a debate (particularly in a comments section) is neither helpful nor productive. What I do ask for is a consideration around a common understanding that a person from a historically underrepresented community can feel angry / upset / frustrated / harmed from misrepresentation and appropriation of their culture.


      Posted by Brendon | September 12, 2016, 1:36 PM
  5. Brendon, I am sincerely trying to understand your position here but cannot find a coherent approach to addressing your concern. I find you to be placing yourself into the uncomfortable role of social justice arbiter making declarations regarding which games should be published based on seemingly ad hoc criteria. If you are able and willing, could you please offer what you are calling for? Making a game or any cultural product exposes you to criticism – I would suggest that you submit a coherent proposal that exposes your views to similar critique. In other words…make something that we can evaluate and scrutinize!

    Some questions and thoughts based on the hints you do offer about what you are calling for:
    Who would you like to hold power exactly? It seems, based on the book publishing company example you provided, that you would like private corporations to determine the suitability of a particular work of art/craft to based on an anticipated response by market forces. To what end? To protect other human beings from what? From carrying out moral and ethical reasoning regarding cultural products that exist in the world?

    Are you against the individual right to create art or craft that is offensive to some or even most in a society? If so, aren’t we risking the loss of any dissident art movement…which is nearly by definition “inappropriate” within a given historical context. I just cannot for the life of me understand why one would argue, in the name of social justice, for shifting power away from individuals and groups of artists and towards private entities. We need desperately, it seems to me, all the tools we have to create meaning and culture – for enjoyment, pursuit of beauty AND to pursue justice.

    It seems to me the end game of what you are calling for is some kind of self-policing reinforced by norms internalized by companies and and others who disseminate culture. A feedback loop that is created by more socially just people creating more socially just companies. I am all for self-betterment forged by learning and real experience – but there are no shortcuts here for us as individuals or as groups and societies.

    It seems to me that your argument is yearning for such a shortcut – that by handing more power and control over to entities like corporations in the pursuit of justice – you think that the outcome will be a more sensitive and appropriate world.

    I find a lot of insight in the fact that you call for the game not to be published in the US. You could have said…this game is a lazy and sloppy appropriation of a culture – how unfortunate. How desperately we need honest, hard fought and authentic cultural expressions! Here are some such games that I recommend are worthy of your time as compared to this one. In this way we could have engaged in a collective exercise in digging into an interesting subject and perhaps learned about games that you respect/admire. Rather, you call for censorship.

    It’s a vastly different process – one is about learning together and arriving and a hard fought (i would say earned) unity – we maintain and even enrich our humanity. I’m honestly terrified of your process which to me is about fear – undisclosed criteria of judgement – punishment and alienation. I clearly have a bad and incomplete feeling about your views on this matter so please help me out.

    Liked by 1 person

    Posted by Greg | September 18, 2016, 5:59 PM
    • I want to thank you for taking the time to read my post and respond in such a detailed way. Whether or not if we agree at the end of the day, I appreciate your willingness to engage.

      “To start off with your first question: What am I asking for?”
      I am asking designers and publishers to be aware at the systems of power and oppression that exist in the world, and specifically the US context when designing games with themes that have to do with other communities culture. I am asking publishers and designers to be respectful of those communities and cultures, realizing that culture is not something for them to take, use, and profit from.

      “Who would I like to hold power exactly?”
      I would like an equitable distribution of power, which is an ‘ideal world,’ a perfectly social just world. Now I know this is virtually impossible, but I am seeing marginalized communities not having power to even own their own cultures. It can be taken at any time by those in power (in the US White folks) and used for entertainment, fashion, monetary gain, popularity, etc.

      “To what end? To protect other human beings from what?”
      The end is social justice. The end is a community where we would not have to worry about marginalization and oppression. Protecting communities from perpetuated racism. I guess that is a little too vague. The end for me in this blog is to make hobbies like board gaming and books/reading more inclusive to historically marginalized communities. To me, this requires respectful representation of those communities.

      “From carrying out moral and ethical reasoning regarding cultural products that exist in the world?”
      I am not quite sure what you mean here. If it is to take away individuals moral & ethical reasoning about cultural products, no. I expect people to develop these ethics more and create community norms around cultural respect.

      “Are you against the individual right to create art or craft that is offensive to some or even most in a society? If so, aren’t we risking the loss of any dissident art movement…which is nearly by definition “inappropriate” within a given historical context.”
      To be blatantly honest, I am sick and tired of hearing free speech and artistic use to justify and defend the perpetuation of racism, sexism, homophobia, transphobia, ableism, genderism, spiritual discrimination, etc. I like free speech. It allows me to write this blog and critique what I think needs improvements and growth. But it’s such a convenient excuse to protect bigotry. I think there is a balance here and I do not know what it is.

      “It seems to me that your argument is yearning for such a shortcut”
      Oh, you can bet I want a shortcut, but I know there isn’t any. I don’t know what you mean by real experiences and learning. I do think the designer AND publisher have a responsibility here to say, “Maybe we need to rethink this theme.” or “Maybe we can do some more work to make this a more inclusive theme.” My question back to you, how is this not a real experience with potential for learning?! We should have socially just companies and individuals. I think we missed each other about handing power to companies. I do not believe that. I simply want companies to notice these things as well since they are made up of individuals and do influence our community.

      “I find a lot of insight in the fact that you call for the game not to be published in the US”
      This is my opinion and I stand by it. It’s not about censorship but accountability to the publisher and designer about putting out culturally respectful games. On your suggestions about how else I could go about it. Whenever marginalized communities point problematic things out (like Waka Tanka), we are often dismissed. It’s when we become radical for folks to take notice. Then we get told to have a cordial conversation about it and we are asking for too much. Honestly, the ‘how unfortunate’ piece to me is complacent in the status quo.

      “I’m honestly terrified of your process which to me is about fear – undisclosed criteria of judgement – punishment and alienation.”
      It is not my intention to alienate or inflict punishment and I understand how my words could impact people in that way. A lot of my writing comes from an experience of oppression and seeing communities I love suffer oppression for their race, culture, gender identity, sexual orientation, and ability. People make mistakes and I make mistakes doing this work but to me it’s not about becoming defensive or afraid of stepping in it again, but realizing those mistakes, learning from it, and doing better next time. When I read your response I honestly think we want to same outcomes. I think it is had to communicate through the comments. I am always happy to talk further about these issues.

      Liked by 1 person

      Posted by Brendon | September 19, 2016, 2:25 PM
  6. hi there.

    nice to see how much effort you’ve put in this article. sadly, i think serious issues overlook it.
    i totally agree about Faidutti’s initial awkwardness : dealing with animal sacrifice amid a culture that does not practice it (let’s say on a regular basis). and i totally agree about that (more than) awkward response about the fact that Europeans don’t know about native Americans still being around. most Europeans know about indian reservations, though they usually couldn’t care less.

    now please bear in mind a game in general, and this game specifically, is not a history manual. themes in board gaming are most commonly top layers, sometimes merely ornemental. anachronisms and historical mistakes are ubiquitous, sometimes intentionnally, sometimes accidentally.
    please bear also in mind that native Americans are depicted in this game as sensible and respectable human beings, some eventually trying to bluff others… like other humans do. illustrations look cute, quite obviously to me. that’s it. they could have been ancient Greeks, slovenian peasants, modern Zoulous, etc.
    finally, i stress your suspicion about the term ‘exotic’ which in French refers to anything unfamiliar to the local (western) culture. from a french point of view, i’d say : slovenian peasants are slightly exotic, modern Zoulous are quite exotic, pre-colonial native Americans are very exotic.

    i’ll now quote your article. i know it is an unexhaustive (if not partial) and often unpleasant process for the writer, but it’s the laziest way to get to my point.

    you write : “But it’s [the free speech excuse] such a convenient excuse to protect bigotry.”. again, i’m not sure we share a common definition of bigotry. i tend to perceive bigotry as a very defensive way of thinking, where any idea or object that seems adventurous or simply stranger to your (rooted) set of values is to be instantly rejected. in that matter, i would tend to see much more bigotry in your reaction than in Faidutti’s design. free speech means Trump can spread his views of the world, like many other dangerous persons. yes free speech is dangerous, but necessary. it doesn’t prevent us from showing a critical mind, i think free speech actually helps exercising it…

    “Their culture is not something for us to use for our entertainment.”. this is a weird and divisive sentence to me. would that mean native Americans don’t play games ? and cultures are to be spread, translated, interpretated, détourned, revamped, etc. it is quite clear to me that the native Americans culture can be ‘used’ (as a tool) for our (i’m still unsure who is ‘us’) entertainment, and theirs, and everyone else. many modern cultural goods (mis)interpret other cultures but i’m quite sure the native American culture also (mis)interpretates other cultures.

    “The publishing company – in the United States, Cool Mini or Not – needs to take responsibility for rejecting theme ideas or accepting games to be published on the contingency of a theme reworking / better work to keep a diverse theme.”. how rejecting can lead to more diversity ? i’m the devil’s advocate right now, because the board game ‘industry’ themes almost entirely consists of the following universes : ancient mediterranean civs, medieval Europe, western/nordic fantasy, science fiction, lost wonders, victorian era and, well, far West. if bigotry overshadows the mind of board game consumers, companies are sure not going to give diversity a chance and keep it conservative with those long-lived and tolerated themes not to risk any public outcry. though quite peremptory, i’d say ‘no risk no fun’.

    overall, i think we need always to put things in perspective. Mombasa was released, i’m anti-slavery and i’m fine with it. Secret Hitler will be released, i’m anti-Nazi and i’m fine with it. you spend many games murdering other ‘races’… could be on a spaceship landing in Pompeii or whatever, i’m fine with it. as long as i don’t perceive a blatant propaganda, enjoy the game and keep in mind it is a game.

    i wonder if you ever asked a native American what his/her take on Waka Tanka is ? that would be interesting.


    Posted by bibi | September 21, 2016, 3:20 AM
  7. Brendon, I have plans to design a card game using American Indian spiritual traditions and folklore but I want have it be inline with the current beliefs and represent a perspective of the cultures. Do you have any contacts that would help bring in American Indian game designers for consulting as well as American Indian artists to illustrate the game?


    Posted by Richard J Gain | December 30, 2020, 1:39 AM


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